Cyber Security in the Age of Digital Transformation

Is your company doing through a digital transformation?

The age of digital transformation is prompting businesses to examine their increased threat surfaces and cyber risk. Circadence provides tips for how to ride the cyber security wave of digital transformation while keeping practices and preparedness efforts strong.

From unifying security architecture to automating routine security tasks to building a culture of continuous cyber training for professionals, Circadence helps businesses of all sizes upskill cyber security teams to fortify the vulnerable human element of cyber security.

Living our Mission Blog Series #3: New Learning Curriculum in Project Ares 3.6.4

We’ve made several new updates to our gamified cyber learning platform Project Ares. We are releasing new battle room and mission cyber security exercises for professionals to continue training and honing skills and competency and have optimized some aspects of performance to make the learning experience smoother.

New Missions and Battle Rooms

To ensure professionals have access to the latest threats to train against, we develop new missions and battle rooms for our users so they can continually learn new cyber security skills, both technical and professional. The following new missions are available to users of the Professional and Enterprise licenses of Project Ares; while the new battle rooms updates are available to users of the Academy, Professional, and Enterprise licenses of Project Ares.

Mission 5 – Operation Wounded Bear

Designed to feature cyber security protection for financial institutions, the learning objectives for this mission are to identify and remove malware responsible for identity theft and protect the network from further infections. Variability in play within the mission includes method of exfiltration, malicious DNS and IP addresses, infected machines, data collection with file share uploads that vary, method of payload and persistence, and a mix of Windows and Linux.

This mission provides practical application of the following skill sets:

  • Computer languages
  • Computer network defense
  • Information systems
  • Information security
  • Command line interface
  • Cyber defense analysis
  • Network and O/S hardening techniques
  • Signature development, implementation and impact
  • Incident response

Mission Objectives:

  1. Use IDS/IPS to alert on initial malware infection vectors
  2. Alert/prevent download of malicious executables
  3. Create alert for infections
  4. Kill malware processes and remove malware from the initially infected machine
  5. Kill other instances of malware processes and remove from machines
  6. Prevent further infection

Mission 6 – Operation Angry Tiger

Using threat vectors similar to the Saudi Arabia Aramco and Doha RasGas cyber attacks, this mission is about responding to phishing and exfiltration attacks.  Cyber defenders conduct a risk assessment of a company’s existing network structure and its cyber risk posture for possible phishing attacks. Tasks include reviewing all detectable weaknesses to ensure no malicious activity is occurring on the network currently. Variability in play within the mission includes the method of phishing in email and payload injection, the alert generated, the persistence location and lateral movement specifics, and the malicious DNS and IP addresses.

Core competencies used in the mission:

  • Incident response team processes
  • Windows and *nix systems administration (Active Directory, Group Policy, Email)
  • Network monitoring (Snort, Bro, Sguil)

Mission Objectives:

  1. Verify network monitoring tools are functioning
  2. Examine current email policies for risk
  3. Examine domain group/user policies for risk
  4. Verify indicator of compromise (IOC)
  5. Find and kill malicious process
  6. Remove all artifacts of infection
  7. Stop exfiltration of corporate data

Mission 13 – Operation Black Dragon

Defending the power grid is a prevailing concern today and Mission 13 focuses on cyber security techniques for Industry Control Systems and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition systems (ICS/SCADA).  Players conduct a cyber defense assessment mission on a power distribution plant. The end state of the assessment will be a defensible power grid with local defender ability to detect attempts to compromise the grid as well as the ability to attribute any attacks and respond accordingly.

Core competencies used in the mission:

  •  Risk Management
  • Incident Response Management
  • Information Systems and Network Security
  • Vulnerability Assessment
  • Hacking Methodologies

Mission Objectives:

  1. Evaluate risks to the plant
  2. Determine if there are any indicators of compromise to the network
  3. Improve monitoring of network behavior
  4. Mitigate an attack if necessary

Battle Room 8 – Network Analysis Using Packet Capture (PCAP)

Battle Room 8 delivers new exercises to teach network forensic investigation skills via analysis of a PCAP. Analyze the file to answer objectives related to topics such as origins of C2 traffic, identification of credentials in the clear, sensitive document exfiltration, and database activity using a Kali image with multiple network analysis tools installed.

Core competencies used in the mission:

  • Intrusion Detection Basics
  • Packet Capture Analysis

Battle Room 10 – Scripting Fundamentals

Scripting is a critical cyber security operator skillset for any team. Previously announced and now available, Battle Room 10 is the first Project Ares exercise focus on this key skill.  The player conducts a series of regimented tasks using the Python language in order to become more familiar with fundamental programming concepts. This battle room is geared towards players looking to develop basic programming and scripting skills, such as:

  • Functions
  • Classes and Objects
  • File Manipulation
  • Exception Handling
  • User Input
  • Data Structures
  • Conditional Statements
  • Loops
  • Variables
  • Numbers & Operators
  • Casting
  • String Manipulation

Core competency used in the mission:

  • Basic knowledge of programming concepts

Game client performance optimizations

We made several adjustments to improve the performance of Project Ares and ensure a smooth player experience throughout the platform.

  • The application size has been reduced by optimizing the texture, font, and 3D assets. This will improve the load time for the game client application.
  • 3D assets were optimized to minimize CPU and GPU loads to make the game client run smoother; especially on lower performance computers.
  • The game client frame rate can now be capped to a lower rate (i.e. 15fps) to lower CPU utilization for very resource constrained client computers.

These features are part of the Project Ares version 3.6.4 on the Azure cloud which is available now. Similar updates in Project Ares version 3.6.5 for vCenter servers will be available shortly.

 

Targeted Cybercrime on the Rise

Targeted attacks against particular groups or entities are on the rise this year. Instead of a “spray and pray” approach, malicious hackers are getting particular about who and what they attack and how for maximum accuracy. Why? The right ransomware attack on the right data set to the right group of people can yield more monetary gain than an attack towards a general group of people at varying companies. To empower ourselves, we need to understand how cybercrime is “getting personal” and what we can do to prevent attacks like this.

Cybercriminals want to stay under the radar, so the more their attacks remain hidden from the public eye, the better chance they have to replicate that method on other vulnerable groups with lots to lose. Unauthorized adversaries target certain devices, computer systems, and groups of professionals most vulnerable to cybercrime.

Server hacking for faster monetary gain

Attacks on endpoint devices like computers and laptops are a thing of the past for evolving hackers who know that unsecured enterprise servers offer the best chances of staying undercover than device firewalls allow. Why get pennies and minimal personal information from a single laptop user when you can get millions from a few locked up servers that house incredibly sensitive data like billing information and credit cards?

The City of Baltimore experienced this firsthand with a ransomware attack that affected 14,000 customers with unverified sewer charges. Hackers demanded $76,000 in bitcoin to unlock city service computers, which impacted the delivery of water bills to local residents. While many residents might not mind skipping a payment, in the long run it’ll cause “surprise” bills when back-pay is requested.

Recently, Rivera Beach in Florida was one of the latest government entities to be crippled by a ransomware attack, and unfortunately, they paid almost $600,000 to hackers to regain access to their data.

But it’s more than a local city and state governments that are being attacked at this scale.

Multi-mass hacking for political disruption

Devices that are used by the masses are also at risk. Think about voting machines. Hacking into those machines has never been easier due to old devices and lack of security on them. To ensure the integrity of data, governments can consider using blockchain to maintain a more hardened security structure all the while, educating their election security professionals on the latest hacking methods so they can assess vulnerabilities on physical systems. The end result of voting machine hacking isn’t monetary per se—it’s much better—pure, unbridled political chaos and public distrust in election security and government operations.

Car-jacking to car hacking

Modern transportation system and vehicle attacks are on the rise too. Today’s cars are basically computers on wheels with the levels of code embedded within them. Hackers have been known to target cars to control key functions like brakes, steering and entertainment consoles to jeopardize the people in the car, as well as everyone around them on the road. In an interview with Ang Cui, CEO of Red Balloon Security, he notes “If you can disable a fleet of commercial trucks by infecting them with specialized vehicle ransomware or in some other way hijacking or crippling the key electronic control units in the vehicle, then the attacker could demand a hefty ransom.”

Cyber security professor Laura Lee notes, “The transportation sector is said to now be the third most vulnerable sector to cyber-attacks that may affect the seaport operations, air traffic control, and railways. The ubiquitous use of GPS information for positioning makes this sector especially concerned about resiliency.”

Preventing targeted cybercrime

In many of the incidences above and those not reported upon, humans are often the first and last line of defense for these companies and devices being attacked. Humans have the ability to detect vulnerabilities and gaps in security while also understanding what hackers are after when it comes to cybercrime tactics.

Our ability to handle both technical and analytical aspects of hacking means more can be done proactively to prevent targeted cybercrime like this. Specifically, in the field of training cyber security professionals, government and commercial entities should evaluate current training efforts to ensure their teams are 100% prepared for targeted attacks like these. How hackers attack changes every day so a persistent, enduring method of training would be critical to helping empower and enable defenders to anticipate, identify, and mitigate threats coming their way.

New cyber training approaches are using gamification to complement and enhance existing traditional, off-site courses. Currently, many traditional courses are passively taught with PowerPoint presentations and prescriptive video learning, often disengaging trainees who want to learn new cyber concepts and skill sets (in addition to staying “fresh” on the cyber fundamentals).

Government organizations and commercial enterprises would be smart to explore engaging ways to keep cyber team skills up to snuff while increasing skill retention rates during training.

More information on new ways to gamify cyber learning can be found here.

Handcuffs: Photo by Bill Oxford on Unsplash
Keyboard : Photo by Taskin Ashiq on Unsplash

Good Bots and Bad Bots: How to Tell the Difference to Stay Cyber Safe

You may have heard or read the term “bot” in the context of cyber security. Normally we hear this word in the wake of a cyberattack and relate it to breaches in computer or network security. While there are certainly bad bots, there are good bots too! So what exactly is a bot, how can you differentiate, and how do they work?

What are bots?

The term bot is short for robot and is a type of software application created by a user (or hacker) that performs automated tasks on command. There are so many variations, from chatbots to spider bots to imposter bots. Good bots are able to assist in automating day to day activities, such as providing up to the minute information on weather, traffic, and news. They can also perform tasks like searching the web for plagiarized content and illegal uploads, producing progressively intelligent query results by scouring the internet content, or helping find the best purchase deals online.

While we encounter bots like these in our everyday activities without really thinking about them, being aware of bad bots is important. Bad bots, used by adversaries, perform malicious tasks and allow an attacker to remotely take control over an infected computer. From there, hackers can infiltrate the network and create “zombie computers,” which can all be controlled at once to perform large-scale malicious acts. This is known as a “botnet”.

How do bots work?

Cybercriminals often use botnets to perform DoS and DDoS attacks (denial of service and distributed denial of service, respectively). These attacks flood target URLs with more requests than they can handle, making regular traffic on a web site almost impossible. Hackers use this as a way to extort money from companies that rely on their website’s accessibility for key business functions and can send out phishing e-mails to direct customers to a fake emergency site.

Protect yourself from bad bots

Don’t let this information scare you though! Awareness is a great first step to recognizing any potential harmful activity, whether on your own computer or on a site you visit online. Preventing bad bots from causing attacks before they start is easy with these tips:

  • Ensure your antivirus software is up to date by setting it to automatically update.
  • Routinely check the security options available to you for your iOS, web hosting platform, or internet service provider.
  • Only click on links and open emails from trusted sources. Avoid accepting friend or connect requests, responding to messages, or clicking on links from unknown persons on social media.

Bots can be incredibly helpful, and we use them every day. Knowing how to differentiate the good from the bad while taking the necessary precautions to protect yourself against malicious bots will ensure that you only need to deal with bots when they are telling you about blue skies or saving you money on that great shirt you’ve been wanting!

Photo by Su San Lee on Unsplash